The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors in oncology has increased the potential for durable responses and shifted therapeutic attention to extending the tail of the survival curve. However, not all patients respond to currently available immunotherapy agents (ie, PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 antibodies).5,15,18
The potential to address a range of additional immune mechanisms of resistance and to activate an immune response at additional points along the immune cycle makes continued research in immuno-oncology vital to the evolution of cancer therapy. Novel immuno-oncology targets and pathways include OX40 and CD40.14,17,23,24
Due to the multiple mechanisms of immune-suppression, combination immuno-oncology regimens may also help address patient needs.